Research areas

  • H Social Sciences (General) - Environmental psychology, user-centered (re)design in housing, care and cure, research-by-design approaches, wellbeing and independent living, quantitative research methods including discrete choice modeling of preferences, qualitative research methods and mixed methods research designs , measuring housing quality, satisfaction and affordability, health, hospitals

Research interests

Clarine is an environmental psychologist and associate professor in the Department of Management in the Built Environment at TU Delft, the Netherlands.


Aging in place

At the intersection of housing, social and healthcare policies are many older people who are living independently. Due to their age, an increased number of people will face declining physical and cognitive capacities and require affordable housing conditions that meet their needs. In 2017, AEDES, the association of housing associations identified both ‘energy efficient renewal’ and ‘housing and care’ as one of the major themes in the forthcoming years (Witter, 2018). However, energy efficient renewal has been on the agenda for more than a decade. In part, the problem is the large volumes that still need to become energy efficient. Given the strong increase of older people that will age in place, and the health care reforms that already apply, an integrated approach is imperative. Here there is a relevant challenge for the architecture and construction industry to identify refurbishment measures that promote “ Aging in Place” (Serrano-Jiménez et al., 2018).


User-communication and co-design

My research contributes to the aforemention challenge by emphasizing the endusers' needs, using 3D modeling and immersive approaches like Virtual Reality. Visualisation of buildings, space and place add to a better communication between residents and professionals as design is normally expressed in a visual language. I advocate a 2 steps approach; first a visual questionnaire with discrete choice experiments is used to identify the most important design factors; followed by the use of VR to better tailor to individual needs. In a recent finished NWO project, Beyond the Current, two VR models are made that can help to communicate the preferences of individual tenants in sustainble renovation of walk-up appartments. In a current project, I collaborate with a contractor and a housing association to learn how VR models can be best used to communicate with social tenants about the renovation of their terrace housing.


Healthcare architecture: design and management

I have a keen interest in Healthcare architecture and interdisciplinary collaboration. For this reason, together with Luc Willekens (section of Architecture), I initiated the Health@BK graduation lab for master graduates from MBE, CME, and Architecture. In the Health@BK lab we closely collaborate with care providers (Pieter van Foreest in Delft, and Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam). Here, students do research into the preferences of patients / elderly people for / during the design of Healthcare real estate. Other topics are f.i. how Healthcare real estate can add value to the care provider.


Green View Study Erasmus MC

Between 2018 and 2020, I will replicate - together with Erasmus MC - the initial study of Ulrich (1984) in Science that outside view to greenery is benefical to patients. Given the available evidence, the new Erasmus MC has roof gardens, and this offered the opportunity to replicate the study using today's methodological standards.


Further background

Before my current position, I worked for more than 15 years as researcher in public health and psychiatry. I obtained my PhD based upon a twin and family study of risk factors in schizophrenia.

I am one of the coordinators of the working group at the ENHR (European Network for Housing Research).

Scopus, Author ID: 6602909369; H-index=12

ID: 116598