Managing grid-connected charging stations for fleets of electric vehicles leads to an optimal control problem where user preferences must be met with minimum energy costs (e.g., by exploiting lower electricity prices through the day, renewable energy production, and stored energy of parked vehicles). Instead of state-of-the-art charging scheduling based on open-loop strategies that explicitly depend on initial operating conditions, this paper proposes an approximate dynamic programming feedback-based optimization method with continuous state space and action space, where the feedback action guarantees
uniformity with respect to initial operating conditions, while price variations in the electricity and available solar energy are handled automatically in the optimization. The resulting control action is a multi-modal feedback, which is shown to handle a wide range of operating regimes, via a set of controllers whose action that can be activated or deactivated depending on availability
of solar energy and pricing model. Extensive simulations via a charging test case demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2066-2075
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Volume19
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

ID: 31673529