Lower levels of automation are designed to work in specific conditions referred to as the Operational Design Domain (ODD). Beyond these conditions, the human driver is expected to take control. A mismatch between a driver's understanding and expectations of the automated vehicle capabilities and its actual capabilities as prescribed in the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) manual, could affect their safety and trust in automation. The main aim of this study is to develop a method for assessing the ODD of lane keeping system equipped vehicles. The analysis method is composed of an objective driving risk measure based on the Probabilistic Driving Risk Field (PDRF), and a subjective risk measure based on driver behavior, trust and situation awareness. We demonstrate the method applicability using the Automated Lane Keeping system of the Tesla Model S. A field test was conducted with 19 participants on public roads in the Netherlands including situations within and outside the defined ODD by the OEM. Across all test situations, a mismatch was observed between the ODD specified by the OEM and by the driver. Situations outside the ODD (i.e. no-lane markings and on/off-ramp) were often regarded as within the ODD by the participants. Situations inside the ODD (i.e. tunnel and curve) were mostly correctly classified by the participants. This analysis method has the potential to aid OEMs and road operators in defining more clearly the ODD while taking into account the driver's safety and awareness of the system capabilities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication statusPublished - 2020

    Research areas

  • Automated vehicles, field test, lane keeping assistance systems, operational design domain, risk analysis

ID: 69609987