A 3D model has been developed to predict the average ferrite grain size and grain size distribution for an austenite-to-ferrite phase transformation during continuous cooling of an Fe-C-Mn steel. Using a Voronoi construction to represent the austenite grains, the ferrite is assumed to nucleate at the grain corners and to grow as spheres. Classical nucleation theory is used to estimate the density of ferrite nuclei. By assuming a negligible partition of manganese, the moving ferrite–austenite interface is treated with a mixed-mode model in which the soft impingement of the carbon diffusion fields is considered. The ferrite volume fraction, the average ferrite grain size, and the ferrite grain size distribution are derived as a function of temperature. The results of the present model are compared with those of a published phase-field model simulating the ferritic microstructure evolution during linear cooling of an Fe-0.10C-0.49Mn (wt pct) steel. It turns out that the present model can adequately reproduce the phase-field modeling results as well as the experimental dilatometry data. The model presented here provides a versatile tool to analyze the evolution of the ferrite grain size distribution at low computational costs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-53
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2018

ID: 34443650