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Electrochemical extraction of rare earth metals in molten fluorides : Conversion of rare earth oxides into rare earth fluorides using fluoride additives. / Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Malfliet, Annelies; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Sietsma, Jilt; Yang, Yongxiang.

In: Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2017, p. 627–637 .

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@article{2e80324f47b243a586fa1782e5e3915f,
title = "Electrochemical extraction of rare earth metals in molten fluorides: Conversion of rare earth oxides into rare earth fluorides using fluoride additives",
abstract = "In the present research on rare earth extraction from rare earth oxides (REOs), conversion of rare earth oxides into rare earth fluorides with fluoride fluxes is investigated in order to overcome the problem of low solubility of the rare earth oxides in molten fluoride salts as well as the formation of oxyfluorides in the fluorination process. Based on thermodynamic calculations, a series of experiments were performed for converting the rare earth oxides into rare earth fluorides using AlF3, ZnF2, FeF3, and Na3AlF6 as fluorinating agents in a LiF–Nd2O3 system. The formation of neodymium fluoride as a result of the reactions between these fluxes and neodymium oxide is confirmed. The rare earth fluoride thus formed can subsequently be processed through the electrolysis route in the same reactor, and rare earth metal can be produced as the cathodic deposit. In this concept, the REO dissolution in molten fluorides would become unnecessary due to the complete conversion of the oxide into the fluoride, REF3. The results of XRD and EPMA analysis of the reacted samples indicate that AlF3, ZnF2, and FeF3 can act as strong fluorinating agents for the neodymium oxide giving rise to a complete conversion of neodymium oxide into neodymium fluoride.",
keywords = "Rare earth oxides, Recycling, Fluorination",
author = "Aida Abbasalizadeh and Annelies Malfliet and Seshadri Seetharaman and Jilt Sietsma and Yongxiang Yang",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1007/s40831-017-0120-x",
language = "English",
volume = "3",
pages = "627–637",
journal = "Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy",
issn = "2199-3823",
publisher = "Springer",
number = "3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electrochemical extraction of rare earth metals in molten fluorides

T2 - Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy

AU - Abbasalizadeh, Aida

AU - Malfliet, Annelies

AU - Seetharaman, Seshadri

AU - Sietsma, Jilt

AU - Yang, Yongxiang

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - In the present research on rare earth extraction from rare earth oxides (REOs), conversion of rare earth oxides into rare earth fluorides with fluoride fluxes is investigated in order to overcome the problem of low solubility of the rare earth oxides in molten fluoride salts as well as the formation of oxyfluorides in the fluorination process. Based on thermodynamic calculations, a series of experiments were performed for converting the rare earth oxides into rare earth fluorides using AlF3, ZnF2, FeF3, and Na3AlF6 as fluorinating agents in a LiF–Nd2O3 system. The formation of neodymium fluoride as a result of the reactions between these fluxes and neodymium oxide is confirmed. The rare earth fluoride thus formed can subsequently be processed through the electrolysis route in the same reactor, and rare earth metal can be produced as the cathodic deposit. In this concept, the REO dissolution in molten fluorides would become unnecessary due to the complete conversion of the oxide into the fluoride, REF3. The results of XRD and EPMA analysis of the reacted samples indicate that AlF3, ZnF2, and FeF3 can act as strong fluorinating agents for the neodymium oxide giving rise to a complete conversion of neodymium oxide into neodymium fluoride.

AB - In the present research on rare earth extraction from rare earth oxides (REOs), conversion of rare earth oxides into rare earth fluorides with fluoride fluxes is investigated in order to overcome the problem of low solubility of the rare earth oxides in molten fluoride salts as well as the formation of oxyfluorides in the fluorination process. Based on thermodynamic calculations, a series of experiments were performed for converting the rare earth oxides into rare earth fluorides using AlF3, ZnF2, FeF3, and Na3AlF6 as fluorinating agents in a LiF–Nd2O3 system. The formation of neodymium fluoride as a result of the reactions between these fluxes and neodymium oxide is confirmed. The rare earth fluoride thus formed can subsequently be processed through the electrolysis route in the same reactor, and rare earth metal can be produced as the cathodic deposit. In this concept, the REO dissolution in molten fluorides would become unnecessary due to the complete conversion of the oxide into the fluoride, REF3. The results of XRD and EPMA analysis of the reacted samples indicate that AlF3, ZnF2, and FeF3 can act as strong fluorinating agents for the neodymium oxide giving rise to a complete conversion of neodymium oxide into neodymium fluoride.

KW - Rare earth oxides

KW - Recycling

KW - Fluorination

UR - http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:2e80324f-47b2-43a5-86fa-1782e5e3915f

U2 - 10.1007/s40831-017-0120-x

DO - 10.1007/s40831-017-0120-x

M3 - Article

VL - 3

SP - 627

EP - 637

JO - Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy

JF - Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy

SN - 2199-3823

IS - 3

ER -

ID: 31671694