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Evaluation and modelling of the traffic flow effects of truck platooning. / Calvert, Simeon; Schakel, Wouter; van Arem, Bart.

In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Vol. 105, 2019, p. 1-22.

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Calvert, Simeon ; Schakel, Wouter ; van Arem, Bart. / Evaluation and modelling of the traffic flow effects of truck platooning. In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies. 2019 ; Vol. 105. pp. 1-22.

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@article{9c278add015f4f98919612136d155fc2,
title = "Evaluation and modelling of the traffic flow effects of truck platooning",
abstract = "With automated and cooperative driving making its breakthrough, and related systems in fast development, their future influence and impact on roads and traffic may be extensive. Truck platooning is such an application that relies on the development of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) and is said to be practice ready. While the main advantages of truck platooning lie in emission and energy reduction, claims are also being made for the influence on traffic flow. In this paper, we pose hypotheses based on some of the main claims. We also attempt to substantiate and give quantitative proof of the potential effects of truck platooning on traffic flow performance. The simulation model LMRS-IDM+ is extended to encompass the main influencing dynamics related to potential effects of truck platooning, based on empirical findings. The effects of truck platooning were tested for the influence of traffic states, truck gap settings, platoon sizes, and the share of equipped trucks. This resulted in outcomes regarding the total traffic performance, the performance of traffic at ramps, and the ability of a platoon to remain platooning as part of a case experiment performed on a part of the Trans-European ITS Corridor. The results showed that truck platooning may have a small negative effect on the total non-saturated traffic flow, however with a much larger negative effect on saturated traffic flow. However, drivers may be reluctant to platoon in saturated traffic in any case. The ability of inflowing traffic to merge at on-ramps was found to be affected by truck platoons, with platoon disengagements occurring under various conditions. The applied gap settings for platooning trucks did not significantly affect the merge time, while a higher gap did lead to a higher number of disengagements. The ability of trucks to platoon was positively affected by a greater percentage of equipped trucks and by larger platoon sizes. Shorter gap times also slightly improved the ability of trucks to remain in platooning formation. Finally, recommendations are given to improve platoon strategies and for policymakers to only allow truck platooning outside of busy (near-) saturated traffic, even though drivers may be reluctant to use the system in these conditions. Also, recommendations are made to investigate potential differences in the effects between the European and American contexts for truck-platooning.",
keywords = "Traffic flow, Traffic flow simulation, Truck platooning, Vehicle automation",
author = "Simeon Calvert and Wouter Schakel and {van Arem}, Bart",
note = "Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.trc.2019.05.019",
language = "English",
volume = "105",
pages = "1--22",
journal = "Transportation Research. Part C: Emerging Technologies",
issn = "0968-090X",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluation and modelling of the traffic flow effects of truck platooning

AU - Calvert, Simeon

AU - Schakel, Wouter

AU - van Arem, Bart

N1 - Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - With automated and cooperative driving making its breakthrough, and related systems in fast development, their future influence and impact on roads and traffic may be extensive. Truck platooning is such an application that relies on the development of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) and is said to be practice ready. While the main advantages of truck platooning lie in emission and energy reduction, claims are also being made for the influence on traffic flow. In this paper, we pose hypotheses based on some of the main claims. We also attempt to substantiate and give quantitative proof of the potential effects of truck platooning on traffic flow performance. The simulation model LMRS-IDM+ is extended to encompass the main influencing dynamics related to potential effects of truck platooning, based on empirical findings. The effects of truck platooning were tested for the influence of traffic states, truck gap settings, platoon sizes, and the share of equipped trucks. This resulted in outcomes regarding the total traffic performance, the performance of traffic at ramps, and the ability of a platoon to remain platooning as part of a case experiment performed on a part of the Trans-European ITS Corridor. The results showed that truck platooning may have a small negative effect on the total non-saturated traffic flow, however with a much larger negative effect on saturated traffic flow. However, drivers may be reluctant to platoon in saturated traffic in any case. The ability of inflowing traffic to merge at on-ramps was found to be affected by truck platoons, with platoon disengagements occurring under various conditions. The applied gap settings for platooning trucks did not significantly affect the merge time, while a higher gap did lead to a higher number of disengagements. The ability of trucks to platoon was positively affected by a greater percentage of equipped trucks and by larger platoon sizes. Shorter gap times also slightly improved the ability of trucks to remain in platooning formation. Finally, recommendations are given to improve platoon strategies and for policymakers to only allow truck platooning outside of busy (near-) saturated traffic, even though drivers may be reluctant to use the system in these conditions. Also, recommendations are made to investigate potential differences in the effects between the European and American contexts for truck-platooning.

AB - With automated and cooperative driving making its breakthrough, and related systems in fast development, their future influence and impact on roads and traffic may be extensive. Truck platooning is such an application that relies on the development of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) and is said to be practice ready. While the main advantages of truck platooning lie in emission and energy reduction, claims are also being made for the influence on traffic flow. In this paper, we pose hypotheses based on some of the main claims. We also attempt to substantiate and give quantitative proof of the potential effects of truck platooning on traffic flow performance. The simulation model LMRS-IDM+ is extended to encompass the main influencing dynamics related to potential effects of truck platooning, based on empirical findings. The effects of truck platooning were tested for the influence of traffic states, truck gap settings, platoon sizes, and the share of equipped trucks. This resulted in outcomes regarding the total traffic performance, the performance of traffic at ramps, and the ability of a platoon to remain platooning as part of a case experiment performed on a part of the Trans-European ITS Corridor. The results showed that truck platooning may have a small negative effect on the total non-saturated traffic flow, however with a much larger negative effect on saturated traffic flow. However, drivers may be reluctant to platoon in saturated traffic in any case. The ability of inflowing traffic to merge at on-ramps was found to be affected by truck platoons, with platoon disengagements occurring under various conditions. The applied gap settings for platooning trucks did not significantly affect the merge time, while a higher gap did lead to a higher number of disengagements. The ability of trucks to platoon was positively affected by a greater percentage of equipped trucks and by larger platoon sizes. Shorter gap times also slightly improved the ability of trucks to remain in platooning formation. Finally, recommendations are given to improve platoon strategies and for policymakers to only allow truck platooning outside of busy (near-) saturated traffic, even though drivers may be reluctant to use the system in these conditions. Also, recommendations are made to investigate potential differences in the effects between the European and American contexts for truck-platooning.

KW - Traffic flow

KW - Traffic flow simulation

KW - Truck platooning

KW - Vehicle automation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85066301491&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.trc.2019.05.019

DO - 10.1016/j.trc.2019.05.019

M3 - Article

VL - 105

SP - 1

EP - 22

JO - Transportation Research. Part C: Emerging Technologies

T2 - Transportation Research. Part C: Emerging Technologies

JF - Transportation Research. Part C: Emerging Technologies

SN - 0968-090X

ER -

ID: 54050591