The rare earth elements (REEs) are a material group that is becoming increasingly important in modern day technologies, with applications in electronics (e.g. FeNdB magnets and luminescent phosphors), chemical industry (e.g. REE catalysts), energy industry (e.g. NiMH batteries and windmills) and medicine (e.g. Gd MRI contrast fluid). Considering the importance of REEs, a steady and secure supply is essential. However, the European Union does not have any domestic production of these elements and is reliant on import from China to meet its REE demand. With the volatility of the REE market and potential Chinese export restrictions, the EU has begun exploring secondary low-grade resources to mitigate a potential shortage of REEs.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
Supervisors/Advisors
Award date23 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

ID: 52608874