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The frontiers of quantum electronics have been linked to the discovery of new refrigeration methods since the discovery of superconductivity at a temperature of around 4 K, enabled by the liquefaction of helium. Since then, advances in cryogenics have led to discoveries such as the quantum Hall effect and new technologies such as superconducting and semiconductor quantum bits. Presently, nanoelectronic devices typically reach electron temperatures of around 10-100 mK by use of commercially available dilution refrigerators. However, cooling electrons via the encompassing lattice vibrations, or phonons, becomes inefficient at low temperatures. Further progress toward lower temperatures requires new cooling methods for electrons on the nanoscale, such as direct cooling with nuclear spins, which themselves can be brought to microkelvin temperatures by adiabatic demagnetization. Here we introduce indium as a nuclear refrigerant for nanoelectronics and demonstrate that solely on-chip cooling of electrons is possible down to 3.2±0.1mK, limited by the heat leak via the electrical connections of the device.

Original languageEnglish
Article number011005
Number of pages6
JournalPhysical Review Applied
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

ID: 56124809