The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of different grades of calcined clay on the extrudability and early-age strength development under ambient conditions. Four mix designs were proposed. Three of them contained high, medium, and low grades of calcined clay, respectively, and one was the reference without calcined clay. In terms of extrudability, an extrusion test method based on the ram extruder was introduced to observe the quality of extruded material filaments, and to determine the extrusion pressure of tested materials at different ages. For evaluating the very early-age strength development, the penetration resistance test, the green strength test, and the ultrasonic pulse velocity test were applied. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the developed mix designs were determined by the compressive strength test at 1, 7 and 28 days. Finally, the main finding of this study was that increasing the metakaolin content in calcined clay could significantly increase the extrusion pressures and green strength, shorten the initial setting time and enhance the compressive strength at 1, 7, and 28 days.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1809
Number of pages22
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2019

    Research areas

  • 3D concrete printing, Early-age strength, Extrudability, Limestone and calcined clay, Sustainable

ID: 53672449