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Numerical investigation and experimental validation of residual stresses building up in microelectronics packaging. / Rezaie Adli, Ali; Jansen, Kaspar.

In: Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 60, 2016, p. 26-38.

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@article{56933fc265934cbab8cd562f9acc6c62,
title = "Numerical investigation and experimental validation of residual stresses building up in microelectronics packaging",
abstract = "This paper comprises the numerical approach and the experimental validation technique developed to obtain the residual stresses building up during encapsulation process of integrated circuits. Residual stresses can be dividedinto cure and cooling induced parts. The curing originated stress had beenmostly neglected in the literature and a special attention had always been given to detection of the thermal induced stress. In this study, both of the residualstresses, evolving during packaging, were investigated independently. The material behavior of the epoxy molding compound, EMC, was determined by the series of characterization experiments. The volumetric behavior of the EMC was investigated using PVT analysis, in which the total cure shrinkage of an initially uncured sample and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the same sample after full conversion were determined. The cure kinetics was studied using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC. The dynamic mechanical behaviorwas examined by dynamic mechanical analysis,DMA, at a fixed frequency. Besides, the time dependent behavior of the EMC was also determined by implementing the time–temperature superposition, TTS, test set-up inDMA.The shift factor was modeled using the combination of the WLF equation and the polynomial of second degree. The constitutive equationswere developed based on the applied boundary conditions and the epoxy compound'smechanical behavior in the respective stage. A two dimensional numerical model was constructed using a commercially available finite element software package. For the experimental verification of the numerically obtained residual stresses a flexible board with the stress measuring chip was encapsulated. The real-time stress data were measured during the encapsulation. Using this technique, the in-plane stresses and the temperature changes during the die encapsulation were measured successfully. Furthermore, the measured stress data was compared with the predicted numerical results of the cure and the thermal stages, independently.",
keywords = "Epoxy molding compound, Viscoelasticity, Numerical, Modeling, Encapsulation, Packaging, Residual stress, Shrinkage, Thermosetting polymer, Conversion, Cure kinetics, PVT, DMA, DSC, Rheometry, Piezoresistivity",
author = "{Rezaie Adli}, Ali and Kaspar Jansen",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1016/j.microrel.2016.03.015",
language = "English",
volume = "60",
pages = "26--38",
journal = "Microelectronics Reliability",
issn = "0026-2714",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Numerical investigation and experimental validation of residual stresses building up in microelectronics packaging

AU - Rezaie Adli, Ali

AU - Jansen, Kaspar

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - This paper comprises the numerical approach and the experimental validation technique developed to obtain the residual stresses building up during encapsulation process of integrated circuits. Residual stresses can be dividedinto cure and cooling induced parts. The curing originated stress had beenmostly neglected in the literature and a special attention had always been given to detection of the thermal induced stress. In this study, both of the residualstresses, evolving during packaging, were investigated independently. The material behavior of the epoxy molding compound, EMC, was determined by the series of characterization experiments. The volumetric behavior of the EMC was investigated using PVT analysis, in which the total cure shrinkage of an initially uncured sample and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the same sample after full conversion were determined. The cure kinetics was studied using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC. The dynamic mechanical behaviorwas examined by dynamic mechanical analysis,DMA, at a fixed frequency. Besides, the time dependent behavior of the EMC was also determined by implementing the time–temperature superposition, TTS, test set-up inDMA.The shift factor was modeled using the combination of the WLF equation and the polynomial of second degree. The constitutive equationswere developed based on the applied boundary conditions and the epoxy compound'smechanical behavior in the respective stage. A two dimensional numerical model was constructed using a commercially available finite element software package. For the experimental verification of the numerically obtained residual stresses a flexible board with the stress measuring chip was encapsulated. The real-time stress data were measured during the encapsulation. Using this technique, the in-plane stresses and the temperature changes during the die encapsulation were measured successfully. Furthermore, the measured stress data was compared with the predicted numerical results of the cure and the thermal stages, independently.

AB - This paper comprises the numerical approach and the experimental validation technique developed to obtain the residual stresses building up during encapsulation process of integrated circuits. Residual stresses can be dividedinto cure and cooling induced parts. The curing originated stress had beenmostly neglected in the literature and a special attention had always been given to detection of the thermal induced stress. In this study, both of the residualstresses, evolving during packaging, were investigated independently. The material behavior of the epoxy molding compound, EMC, was determined by the series of characterization experiments. The volumetric behavior of the EMC was investigated using PVT analysis, in which the total cure shrinkage of an initially uncured sample and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the same sample after full conversion were determined. The cure kinetics was studied using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC. The dynamic mechanical behaviorwas examined by dynamic mechanical analysis,DMA, at a fixed frequency. Besides, the time dependent behavior of the EMC was also determined by implementing the time–temperature superposition, TTS, test set-up inDMA.The shift factor was modeled using the combination of the WLF equation and the polynomial of second degree. The constitutive equationswere developed based on the applied boundary conditions and the epoxy compound'smechanical behavior in the respective stage. A two dimensional numerical model was constructed using a commercially available finite element software package. For the experimental verification of the numerically obtained residual stresses a flexible board with the stress measuring chip was encapsulated. The real-time stress data were measured during the encapsulation. Using this technique, the in-plane stresses and the temperature changes during the die encapsulation were measured successfully. Furthermore, the measured stress data was compared with the predicted numerical results of the cure and the thermal stages, independently.

KW - Epoxy molding compound

KW - Viscoelasticity

KW - Numerical

KW - Modeling

KW - Encapsulation

KW - Packaging

KW - Residual stress

KW - Shrinkage

KW - Thermosetting polymer

KW - Conversion

KW - Cure kinetics

KW - PVT

KW - DMA

KW - DSC

KW - Rheometry

KW - Piezoresistivity

U2 - 10.1016/j.microrel.2016.03.015

DO - 10.1016/j.microrel.2016.03.015

M3 - Article

VL - 60

SP - 26

EP - 38

JO - Microelectronics Reliability

T2 - Microelectronics Reliability

JF - Microelectronics Reliability

SN - 0026-2714

ER -

ID: 9160525