Smart CPSs (S-CPSs) have been evolving beyond what was identified by the traditional definitions of CPSs. The objective of our research is to investigate the concepts and implementations of reasoning processes for S-CPSs, and more specifically, the frameworks proposed for the fuzzy front end of their reasoning mechanisms. The objectives of the paper are: (i) to analyze the framework concepts and implementations of CPS, (ii) to review the literature concerning system-level reasoning and its enablers from the points of view of the processed knowledge, building awareness, reasoning mechanisms, decision making, and adaptation. Our findings are: (i) awareness and adaptation behaviors are considered as system-level smartness of S-CPSs that are not achieved by traditional design approaches; (ii) model-based and composability approaches insufficiently support the development of reasoning mechanisms for S-CPSs; (iii) frameworks for development of reasoning in S-CPS should support compositional design. Based on the conclusions above, we argue that coping with the challenges of compositionality requires both software-level integration and holistic fusion of knowledge by means of semantic transformations. This entails the need for a multi aspect framework that is able to capture at least conceptual, functional, architectural, informational, interoperation, and behavioral aspects. It needs further investigation if a compositionality enabling framework should appear in the form of a meta-framework (abstract) or in the form of a semantically integrated (concrete) framework.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)527-541
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Computational Design and Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019

    Research areas

  • Compositionality, Cyber-physical systems, Development framework, System level reasoning, System smartness

ID: 57214697